Phosphate esters are multifunctional additives used to formulate aqueous cutting and forming fluids due to their high polarity and affinity for metal surfaces. They act as anionic surfactants that provide wetting and corrosion inhibition. Phosphetalproducts reduce friction between metal-to-metal surfaces during machining, providing wear protection under extreme pressure conditions. Acid phosphate esters are also used in paints, coatings, inks and metal cleaning applications due to their detergent/dispersant functionality. Phosphetal phosphate esters are available in acid form or as neutralized salts.